The best conditions for saffron are hot, dry and moist (with little or no moisture) at 50 to 80 F (10 to 20 C) in air (with no humidity) and at 35 to 50 F (2 to 5 C) during the first 48 hours in the vegetative stage (from germination to the first flush of flowering).
A single, strong heatwave will destroy the delicate saffron’s delicate flower, yet we all know that it is a plant’s strength or lack thereof to resist heat. I can think of few reasons why a “bad” climate will help or harm saffron. For me, the ideal climate to grow saffron was an all-time low temperature (no humidity above 50%). That would create a humidity of 20% or less, a temperature of 40 to 80 F or 15 to 30 C, and a humid temperature in the low 20’s to low 30’s at the same time of growing from seed.
In an ideal climate to grow saffron and a low humidity, only the green stage flower will germinate and flower. The flowers of the two flower stage (green stage) will form a cup in which the red stamens and leaves (the pith of the plant) can make their way (the plant) to the surface of the skin (the stamen). This cup formed by the seeds (the small green seeds) will then develop and branch out into the larger red stamen. When the red flower makes its way from the seed to the surface of the skin, it leaves behind some of its red stamens and leaves. Some leaves are small and stick out like a stick of gum, others are larger, and some are almost completely green. When the red flower leaves, the smaller leaves get pulled down and the mature leaves emerge to follow. These larger leaves will then grow bigger and larger, eventually forming a large “roof” of leaves with very large hairs (a stalk and a stem). Finally, at the end of the flowering, all saffron flowers will develop a thick dark-green crown of leaves (also called a “root mass”) that will look like a large mushroom that is still attached to its stem.
When the heat reaches a high enough temperature and humidity, the brown or black (non-virgin) saffron flowers (the red stamen) begin to show in the plant. Once flowers have emerged from the seed in a cold or warm climate, the stamens